9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001


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Introduction

I f the politics of dioxin is knotty, the public health problem of it is trickier still. Dioxins are all pervasive, so there is no safe threshold level for dioxins in the human body.

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While nobody is sure how much dioxin a person can tolerate without health implications, one thing nobody debates is that dioxin should be prevented wherever possible. The Ninth Report on Carcinogens from the National Toxicology Programme of the us has set the alarm bells ringing by adding 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin tcdd to the list of known carcinogens. The epa believes that people who eat rich diet containing dioxin may face a 1-in risk of developing some form of cancer, diabetes or immune system disorders.

Another study found a dose-dependent increase in risk of cancer and heart disease among a group of 1, workers at a pesticide manufacturing plant in Hamburg, Germany, who were exposed to dioxins between and Marilyn Fingerhut of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health niosh , usa , studied the health of 5, workers at 12 chemical plants that manufacture or used to manufacture products contaminated with dioxins. Out of the total, 1, had nine times the normal amount of soft tissue sarcoma.


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Workers also had 42 per cent more cancers of the respiratory tract. These studies are enough to establish the dioxin-cancer link. Taking into view epa 's findings, environmentalists have estimated that about of the roughly 1, cancer deaths occurring daily in the us are due to dioxins. Studies indicate that the tumors often arise at the site of placement of the tobacco.

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Consumption of alcoholic beverages - Consumption of alcoholic beverages is listed as a " known human carcinogen. The Report reports that the effect of a given level of alcoholic beverage intake on cancers of the head and neck is influenced by other factors, especially smoking, but that smoking does not explain the increased cancer hazard associated with alcoholic beverage consumption.

The Report also states that there is evidence that suggests a link between alcoholic beverage consumption and cancer of the liver and breast.

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Solar UV radiation and exposure to sunlamps and sunbeds - Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, sunlamps, or sunbeds is listed as a " known human carcinogen. The Report also indicates that skin cancers are observed with increasing duration of exposure, and the effects are especially pronounced in individuals under 30 and for those who experience sunburn. Crystalline silica respirable size - Crystalline silica respirable size , which is primarily quartz dust occurring in industrial and occupational settings in the form of fine, breathable particles, was also upgraded to a " known human carcinogen.

Comments were received expressing concern that this listing would lead to confusion among the public over the possibility that sand at the beach is carcinogenic. However, the Report makes clear that the listing is based on increased lung cancer rates in workers exposed to respirable-size breathable crystalline silica, primarily quartz and crystabolite, that are generated during sandblasting and similar activities in an occupational setting. Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid - Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid are listed as " known human carcinogens.

Industrial processes in which occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mist has been examined include manufacture of isopropyl alcohol, lead batteries, phosphate fertilizers, soap and detergents, synthetic ethanol, and pickling and other acid treatments of metals. Dyes metabolized to benzidine - Dyes metabolized to benzidine are listed in the 9th Report as " known human carcinogens. This listing is based on the fact that benzidine, which has been listed in the Report since , is a known human carcinogen and once absorbed, these benzidine-based dyes are converted to free benzidine in humans.

Benzidine was one of the first chemicals for which an association of occupational exposure and increased incidence of urinary bladder cancer in humans was reported. This chemical is used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber. The upgrading to a " known human carcinogen " was based on findings from studies in humans that provided evidence of a causal relationship between occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene and excess mortality from hematopoietic cancers. Cadmium and cadmium compounds - Cadmium and cadmium compounds were upgraded from " reasonably anticipated " to " known human carcinogens " in the 9th Report.

These materials are used in batteries, coating and plating, plastic and synthetic products and alloys, and had been listed as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" since The Report identifies findings of increased risk of lung cancers in workers exposed to cadmium and cadmium compounds. Ethylene oxide - Ethylene oxide was upgraded from " reasonably anticipated " to a " known human carcinogen " in the 9th Report. This chemical is used to make other chemicals and is also widely used in the health care industry to sterilize medical devices. It had been listed in the Report as " reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen " since The Report cites findings of increased risk for leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in workers exposed to ethylene oxide.

This information coupled with data on its genotoxic and biochemical interactions with human DNA led to the upgrading to a " known human carcinogen. Tamoxifen - Tamoxifen is listed in the 9th Report as a " known human carcinogen " based on evidence from studies in humans that indicate tamoxifen increases the risk of uterine cancer in women.

While there is clear evidence that tamoxifen causes uterine cancer in women, there is also conclusive evidence that tamoxifen therapy reduces the risk of cancer in the opposite breast in women with a previous diagnosis of breast cancer, and reduces the incidence of breast cancer in women at increased risk for this disease. At the time of this drug's approval for reducing the risk of breast cancer, it was known that women who take tamoxifen have an increased risk of getting uterine cancer.

FDA approved tamoxifen for use in women with a high risk of breast cancer because the benefit of decreasing the risk of breast cancer outweighed the risks of taking tamoxifen, including the risk of getting uterine cancer. There has been concern expressed that the listing of tamoxifen in the 9th Report could raise concerns among patients regarding its use for cancer treatment or prevention.

It is, therefore, important to again note that these listings do not address potential benefits of exposures to certain carcinogenic substances. In this instance, the benefits of exposure to the substance have been determined by the FDA to outweigh the risks entailed. Personal decisions concerning voluntary exposures to carcinogenic agents need to be based on additional information that is beyond the scope of the 9th Report.

The smell downtown was as pungent as you could imagine. There were buildings still on fire. Those buildings burned for months.


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  • Mormando, who is undergoing chemotherapy, is one of at least 15 men who spent time near Ground Zero and have now been diagnosed with breast cancer, according to their attorney, Michael Barasch. There are likely many more. The new cluster of male breast cancer diagnoses is just one face of a health crisis that is only getting worse 17 years after the terrorist attacks. Michael Guedes, a retired NYPD sergeant who rushed to Ground Zero, and in the following months worked at Fresh Kills landfill on Staten Island digging through the debris and remains that had been taken there, said future health consequences had been the last thing on his mind.

    Guedes, 65, was diagnosed with breast cancer three years ago after his girlfriend found a lump on his chest. He went through surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, and remains on medication. I like my privacy.

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    Flynn worked for a data storage company near the World Trade Center, and returned soon after the attacks to help companies get back up and running. Still, it took him a while to connect the dots between the time he spent around the wreckage and his cancer. Once he did, he signed up for the health program. There were 9, members of the World Trade Center Health Program certified as having a related cancer as of the end of June, according to the program.

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    An additional members who had cancer have died. The toll on first responders has been well documented — members of the New York Fire Department alone have died due to such illnesses.

    9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001 9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001
    9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001 9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001
    9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001 9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001
    9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001 9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001
    9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001 9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001
    9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001 9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001
    9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001 9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001
    9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001 9th Report on Carcinogens: Revised January 2001

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