Rule of Existence


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THE EXISTENCE OF RULES

Fowler describes two version of this use, one being the "loose rhetorical sense" and the other "serious nonsense"; [1] other writers connect these uses together insofar as they represent what Holton calls a "drift" from the legal meaning. In many uses of the phrase, however, the existence of an exception is taken to more definitively 'prove' a rule to which the exception does not fit. Under this sense it is "the unusualness of the exception" [2] which proves how prevalent the tendency or rule of thumb to which it runs contrary is.

For example: a rural village is "always" quiet. A local farmer rents his fields to a rock festival, which disturbs the quiet. In this example, saying "the exception proves the rule" is in a literal sense incorrect, as the exception shows first that the belief is not a rule and second there is no 'proof' involved. However, the phrase draws attention to the rarity of the exception, and in so doing establishes the general accuracy of the rule. In what Fowler describes as the "most objectionable" variation of the phrase, [1] this sort of use comes closest to meaning "there is an exception to every rule", or even that the presence of an exception makes a rule more true; these uses Fowler attributes to misunderstanding.

The Oxford English Dictionary includes this meaning in its entry for the word exception , citing the example from Benjamin Jowett 's book Essays , in which he writes: "We may except one solitary instance an exception which eminently proves the rule.

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Under this version of the phrase, the word 'proof' is to be understood in its archaic form to mean the word 'test' this use can be seen in the phrase the proof of the pudding is in the eating [9]. Fowler's example is of a hypothetical critic , Jones, who never writes a favourable review. So it is surprising when we receive an exception: a favourable review by Jones of a novel by an unknown author.

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Then it is discovered that the novel is his own, written under a pseudonym. The exception tested 'proved' the rule and found that it needed to be understood a little more precisely - namely, that Jones will never write a favourable review, except of his own work. Holton argues that this origin involves a "once-heard etymology" which "makes no sense of the way in which the expression is used. Every electron is fundamentally identical to every other electron in the Universe, with the same charge, mass, lepton number, lepton family number, and intrinsic angular momentum or spin.


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If there were no Pauli Exclusion Principle, there would be no limit to the number of electrons that could fill the ground lowest-energy state of an atom. Over time, and at cool enough temperatures, that's the state that every single electron in the Universe would eventually sink to. Of course, this is not the way our Universe works, and that's an extremely good thing. The Pauli Exclusion Principle is exactly what prevents this from occurring by that simple rule: you cannot put more than one identical fermion in the same quantum state.

Sure, the first electron can slide into the lowest-energy state: the 1s orbital. If you take a second electron and try to put it in there, however, it cannot have the same quantum numbers as the previous electron. Electrons, in addition to the quantum properties inherent to themselves like mass, charge, lepton number, etc.

Unter den Schollen tobt das Leben

The electron's spin, though, offers a second possibility. This way, you can fit two electrons into the 1s orbital. As we add greater numbers of electrons to our atoms, we have to go to higher energy levels, greater angular momenta, and increasingly more complex orbitals to find homes for all of them.

The energy levels work as follows:. Each individual atom on the periodic table, under this vital quantum rule, will have a different electron configuration than every other element. Because it's the properties of the electrons in the outermost shells that determine the physical and chemical properties of the element it's a part of, each individual atom has its own unique sets of atomic, ionic, and molecular bonds that it's capable of forming. No two elements, no matter how similar, will be the same in terms of the structures they form.

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This Little-Known Quantum Rule Makes Our Existence Possible

This is the root of why we have so many possibilities for how many different types of molecules and complex structures that we can form with just a few simple raw ingredients. Each new electron that we add has to have different quantum numbers than all the electrons before it, which alters how that atom will interact with everything else.

The net result is that each individual atom offers a myriad of possibilities when combining with any other atom to form a chemical or biological compound. There is no limit to the possible combinations that atoms can come together in; while certain configurations are certainly more energetically favorable than others, a variety of energy conditions exist in nature, paving the way to form compounds that even the cleverest of humans would have difficulty imagining.

But the only reason that atoms behave this way, and that there are so many wondrous compounds that we can form by combining them, is that we cannot put an arbitrary number of electrons into the same quantum state. Electrons are fermions, and Pauli's underappreciated quantum rule prevents any two identical fermions from having the same exact quantum numbers. Every atom would have almost identical properties to hydrogen, making the possible structures we could form extremely simplistic.

The Pauli Exclusion Principle isn't the first thing we think of when we think of the quantum rules that govern reality, but it should be. Without quantum uncertainty or wave-particle duality, our Universe would be different, but life could still exist.

Does The Higgs Boson Rule Out The Existence Of God? Ask Deepak Chopra!

Without Pauli's vital rule, however, hydrogen-like bonds would be as complex as it could get. This article was originally published in Forbes Magazine.

Will Science Someday Rule Out the Possibility of God?

When we ask ourselves why we think time exists, most of us would say: because we see everything changing, always. Since childhood I have been fascinated by holograms. The reason was the science fiction movie Star Wars and in I watched it for the first time. Over the past century, the total number of physicists has grown exponentially, as has the number of….


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If you were to stand outside the universe—outside both space and time—and look at your life, you would see your birth, your death and every moment in between laid out as distinct points. The most famous case study in science, prior to Freud, was published in in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society by the English surgeon William Cheselden, who attended Newton in his final illness.

The existence of an ether — an all-pervading medium composed of a subtler kind of matter — has been taught by mystic philosophers throughout the ages. Time is a contentious topic in physics. Others, such as Carlo Rovelli, hold that it arises as a secondary effect of deeper quantum processes.

General Law - Part I, Title XV, Chapter A, Section 7

David Bohm was one of the most distinguished theoretical physicists of his generation, and a fearless challenger of scientific orthodoxy. Is math an invention of the human brain? Or does math exist in some abstract world, with humans merely discovering its truths? Therefore, he argued, it is not possible to eliminate the chance of a miracle based on a large number of negative observations.

Capitalization worked a little differently back in those days.


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It has also been central to the latest developments in artificial intelligence. We have Richard Price, the first Bayesian, to thank for sharing it with the world.

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