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The Poverty of Theory
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We are angels and we are devils, both, in our own proper person. But we are more even than this. We are whole beings, gifted with understanding. A full, undiminished being is complete beyond the angels and the devils. This is the condition of freedom: that in the under standing I fear nothing. In the body I fear pain, in love I fear hate, in death I fear life. But in the under standing I fear neither love nor hate nor death nor pain nor abhorrence.
I am brave even against abhorrence; even the abhorrent I will understand and be at peace with. Not by exclusion, but by incorporation and unison. There is no hope in exclusion. For whatsoever limbo we cast our devils into will receive us ourselves at last. We shall fall into the cesspool of our own abhorrence There is nothing on earth to be ashamed of, nor under the earth, except the craven veils we hang up to save our appearances. Pull down the veils and understand everything, each man in his own self-responsible soul.
The Lawrence we celebrate in our literary culture is not the Lawrence who speaks in this passage. It is a figment of the critical imagination which has never been very rich; it is a Lawrence dessicated by Leavis who could not and would not understand the wealth which is locked up in the realm of obscenity and who therefore excised from Lawrence what he did not like and preached the rest from that pulpit where he always preached culture and sensitivity for the few and literacy for the many.
The other Lawrence, not the elitist Lawrence but the Lawrence of inclusion, of incorporation and unison, he did not preach. And so we have never come to understand everything, even our own abhorrence. We have only the fear-ridden sham-science of psychoanalysis which we use to console and deceive ourselves against the recognition of our poverty. Indeed one of the sources for the vision of blighted desolation which lies behind his locust-metaphor might well be a passage from a Methodist tract which Thompson cites in his earlier work:.
God … before he can justify us freely … must wither our gourd, blast the flower of proud hope, take away the prop of self dependence, strip us of the gaudy covering of Christless righteousness, stop the boasting of pharisaical self-sufficiency, and bring the guilty, abased, ashamed, blushing, self-despairing sinner, to the foot of the Cross quotrd in The Making of The English Working Class, p. In focusing attention on the barrenness of Althusserian Marxism what Thompson effectively creates is a Methodism-within-Marxism. Once again, by using this strategy, he tends to localise a feature of the Marxist sensibility which is in fact universal just as he does elsewhere with the Christian sensibility.
But he treats this this reductive element in Marxist thought as though it were merely an aberration. Marx himself, Thompson suggests, soon strayed from his own project but since that time Marxist historians have resumed it. The list is certainly a long one. But when they get to the end of it some readers will still feel a certain disappointment — like that of the child who, having inspected the contents of a large packet of assorted biscuits is confirmed in his or her original suspicion that none of them have any chocolate on the outside or even any cream on the inside.
As we munch into the poetry of Marvell, which at least contains a few currants, we might well reflect that, were history still written, as it once was, by monks, then the modern Marxist monk could do most of his research and compile most of the chronicles demanded of him without ever taking off his cassock or putting his chastity at risk. For carnal temptations have not been strewn thickly in his path.
Cistercian monasteries, Puritan doctrines and the poetry of Marvell are all very well, but what of the harlots of Hogarth, the obscenities of Rochester, Victorian pornography, or child-rearing and family-relationships throughout the centuries? Revolutionary brotherhoods and confrontations of class are all very well. But what of sisterhoods and confrontations of sex? Of late it is no doubt true that the Marxist bookshelves have begun to groan with feminism. Indeed, to the larger part of human experience the Marxist sensibility has continued to stand in a relationship not of curiosity but of fear, Above all, whatever professions of feminism or permissiveness they may have uttered, most Marxists continue to find relationships between men and women profoundly disturbing.
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For this reason these relationships are either mystified or passed over in silence as one of the components of history which, because it is subjectively invisible, must be objectively irrelevant. The historian and philosopher R. It is this fact that makes Althusser into an indispensable figure in the mythology of modern broad-church Marxism. It is by looking out into the arctic wastes of structuralism that Marxists belonging to a broader tradition may convince themselves that the glimmer of warmth in their own hearts is really a fire burning brightly.
It is by running their hands over the cold and massive links in the cruel chains of logic by which Althusser binds men and women, that they may reassure themselves that the leather thongs in which they are themselves bound are but the necessary tackle and harness-work of freedom.
The essay still has something of the grandeur of a colossus. But far from being, as it presents itself, an exercise in radical social philosophy, its underlying imaginative substance belongs to a conservative tradition of cultural criticism. For as I argue elsewhere what our culture is afflicted by is what our intellectual tradition is itself largely composed of — the forms and beliefs of Christianity and Platonism, and of that ascetic self-contempt which is our inheritance from them.
That tradition is not one which any plea of atheism or materialism can ever make external to us, for it is a tradition inscribed in our identities; it is the tradition into whose shape our heads and hearts were moulded when we were children. Because of this it is not the manner in which others oppress us and exploit us and squander the wealth they extract from us that must be the primary concern of any true historical materialism.
It is the manner in which we oppress and exploit ourselves and the reason why we refuse to draw upon that wealth which, so long as we remain the owners of our own bodies, we will always legally possess. It is that capital whose complexities and relationships we must first map if we are to begin to understand the social and economic relationships in whose network all forms of capital have their being.
So long as we follow Marx in concentrating attention on an external, merely financial capital, so long as we continue compulsively to look outside ourselves for an external bourgeois, capitalist, aristocratic or imperialist enemy, then just so long is it likely that we will continue to oppress ourselves and fail to recognise that whatever external revolution we may effect, our internal hierarchy of power will remain unchallenged, and our true capital unliberated.
Under the guise of a socialism of the state we will thus promote a totalitarianism of the soul. In our efforts to achieve liberation we will tighten still further the harness of that self-control from whose constricting clasp around our bodies we, in our craven fear of freedom, draw so much security.
We, in our intellectual and political culture, have clung too long to the skirts of Marxism. It is time to stop. For if we can only find within ourselves the confidence to let go and stand up and look deep into the eyes of Marx himself then we will see just how much fear and just how much terror those eyes contain; we will see just how weak is the soul from which we seek to draw strength. Thompson has never done this. For the weaknesses which I have pointed to in the way Thompson develops his locust-metaphor against Althusser are not exclusive to his own thought or to the thought of earlier cultural critics such as Leavis and Arnold.
Their immediate source is in Marx and they characterise a crucial element in the Marxist sensibility. Marx is frequently portrayed as standing outside the main intellectual tradition of our culture as introducing for the first time scientific materialism into a climate of thought dominated by transcendental idealism. Few of the many mass-delusions of our intellectual culture have ever been more tragically false.
For Marx belongs, and signals his belonging with every word that he writes, to the cold heart of orthodoxy. For anti-semitism was, throughout the middle ages and into the twentieth century, a key element in many of the most influential versions of Christian doctrine. David McLellan. We may presume that these words were written in the spirit of scientific inquiry. This does not stop them, however, from having all the mysticism of religious faith. And having put his finger on it, McLellan, in worshipful reverence, longingly leaves it there, as though upon an icon he has come to adore.
As a result even he himself is unable to see the massive significance of the truth to which he inadvertently points. At the very heart of his political and intellectual vision we will find not an objective analysis of social and economic relationships but a translation of anti-semitic fantasies into a new anti-capitalist mythology which is then presented as a science.
Let us not seek the secret of the Jew in his religion, but let us seek the secret of religion in the real Jew. What is the profane basis of Judaism? Practical needs, self-interest Very well: in ridding itself of huckstering and money and thus from real and practical Judaism, our age would emancipate itself … We discern in Judaism therefore, a universal anti-social element of the present time whose historical development, zealously aided in its harmful aspects by the Jews, has now attained its culminating point The Jew has emancipated himself in a Jewish manner not only by acquiring the power of money, but also because money has become, through him and also apart from him, a world power, while the practical Jewish spirit has become the practical spirit of the Christian nations.
The Jews have emancipated themselves in so far as the Christians have become Jews … Money is the jealous god of Israel, beside which no other god may exist. Money degrades all the gods of mankind and changes them into commodities … The bill of exchange is the real God of the Jew. His God is only an illusory bill of exchange … Christianity issued from Judaism.
The Poverty of Theory: Or, an Orrery of Errors
It has now been reabsorbed into Judaism. From the beginning, the Christian was the theorizing Jew; consequently the Jew is the practical Christian. And the practical Christian has become a Jew again. It was only then that Judaism could attain universal domination. As soon as society succeeds in abolishing the empirical essence of Judaism huckstering and its conditions — the Jew becomes impossible The social emancipation of the Jew is the emancipation of society from Judaism.
In his later, more purely economic writings, Marx refrains, for the most part, from expressing his anti-semitism directly. Again and again, however, we will find his anti-capitalism imbued with that violent irrationalism which he had earlier vented in his discussion of the Jewish question. Throughout the imagery of his later work there is an oblique awareness of this loss. Increasingly Marx relied on his labour theory of value.
Yet the manifold deficiencies of this theory suggest that it fascinated Marx not because of its explanatory power but because of the fantasy-structure he secreted within it. Here life is pumped out of the worker and used to vitalise a Frankenstein-like monster, fecund and limitlessly self-reproducing, created by the capitalist:. Capital , Chapter.
The reference to the incorporation of vitality into dead substance also suggests the pattern of anxiety we find in the ancient mythology of the vampire. In another discussion of surplus-value Marx uses the image explicitly:. Constant capital, the means of production, considered from the outlook of the creation of surplus value, exists only to absorb labour, and, with every drop of labour, to absorb a proportional quantity of surplus labour. In so far as the means of production fail to do this, their mere existence involves a negative loss to the capitalist, seeing that, during the time when they lie fallow, they represent a useless advance of capital..
The prolongation of the working day beyond the limits of the natural day, its prolongation into the night, acts only as a palliative. It can never more than partially slake the vampire thirst for the living blood of labour. Capital, Chapter. The image of the capitalist as a greedy parasite recurs at the end of the same discussion, incorporating this time a quotation from Engels. The indulgence of such vivid metaphor is something which Marx allows himself but rarely and its function is evidently more than simply rhetorical or decorative. Indeed the potency of the notion of the capitalist as a greedy suckler on wealth he had appropriated is demonstrated by the fact that the same theme was frequently used in socialist propaganda.
Here, to cite but one example, are the words of the Irish revolutionary socialist, Joseph Connolly, writing at the close of the nineteenth century. Connolly here seeks to persuade his countrymen that you cannot free Ireland unless you are prepared to take up arms against your economic oppressors — even though they may be Irish themselves. Irish nationalism in itself, in short, which does not concern itself with material conditions, can never be a sufficient condition of liberation:.
Let us free Ireland! Never mind such base, carnal thoughts as concern work and wages, healthy homes, or lives unclouded by poverty. The rackrenting landlord; is he not also an Irishman, and wherefore should we hate him? Nay, let us not speak harshly of our brother — yea, even when he raises our rent. The profit-grinding capitalist, who robs us of three-fourths of the fruits of our labour, who sucks the very marrow of our bones when we are young, and then throws us out in the street, like a worn-out tool when we are grown prematurely old in his service, is he not an Irishman, and mayhap a patriot, and wherefore should we think harshly of him?
The capitalist, I say, is a parasite on industry; as useless in the present stage of our industrial development as any other parasite in the animal or vegetable world is to the life of the animal or vegetable upon which it feeds. The working class is the victim of this parasite — this human leech, and it is the duty and interest of the working class to use every means in its power to oust this parasite class from the position which enables it to thus prey upon the vitals of labour. Therefore, I say, let us organise as a class to meet our masters and destroy their mastership; organise to drive them from their hold upon public life through their political power; organise to wrench from their robber clutch the land and workshops on and in which they enslave us; organise to cleanse our social life from the stain of social cannibalism, from the preying of man upon his fellow man.
Marx himself used the metaphor of the parasite or vampire to project onto the working class his own sense of inner deadness, his sense of having been sucked dry by that ascetic work-ethic which is the most insidious means by which money-centred societies perpetuate their structure. At the same time, however, he projected onto his fantasy stereotype of the capitalist his own obsessive interest in money and his own thwarted bodily appetites and fantasies of oral regression.
The reason that this tendency of Marx has been so rarely remarked on by his commentators is that the metaphors -he uses to describe financial activity are so conventional, so long established in our culture, that they have become almost invisible. The habit of portraying economic activity by the use of oral metaphors, combined with a defamatory caricature of Jewish financial astuteness, strengthened the tendency to depict Jews as parasites, feeding on the substance of the body in which they lodge. The charge has assumed various forms.
Take him away from the organism in which, and at whose expense he lives, place him instead upon a rock, and he will die. It was this tradition of modern political anti-semitism, one which had grown directly out of Christian anti-semitism, which Marx directly inherited.
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It was a tradition whose rhetoric was already ideally suited to expressing the violent resentment of a proletariat continually exploited by the eternal and triumphant will of the capitalist, who seemed to survive all insurrection:. Even though the rage of the people sometimes flares high against the eternal bloodsucker it does not in the least prevent him from reappearing in a few years in the place he had hardly left The words might almost be those of Marx.
Where Marx diverged from Hitler was in the manner he translated traditional anti-semitism into a more universal anti-capitalism, systematising and rationalising the violent hostility to a limited class of people which anti-semitic fantasies contained. This he did with such extraordinary energy and such diligent and sometimes illuminating scholarship that he succeeded in deceiving himself and continues even today to deceive his modern followers.
Above all Marx inadvertently succeeded, by secreting traditional anti-semitic fantasies within a new and ostensibly scientific ideology, in creating a political philosophy which ultimately proved to be ideally suited to promoting a revolutionary cause to a people who had been traditionally governed and manipulated by Tsarist anti-semitism. The fantasies by means of which the government regimes had retained their precarious hold over the nation, now, in Lenoin's Russia, were used to feed the hearts of those who rose to overthrow their government. Because the displaced anti-semitism which underlies Marxist ideology is essentially a capitalist phenomenon, it was an inevitable consequence that the revolutionary forces it marshalled should end by preserving, and indeed intensifying, the psychology of totalitarianism and the mentality of imperialism.
It is this tradition of essentially repressive anti-capitalism which E. Thompson, after all qualifications and reservations have been counted, continues to endorse. For asceticism remains deeply etched into the very foundations of Marxist theory — an aceticism more arid and more joyless than that of any conventionally religious Puritan. In the section "On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production," Althusser discusses in detail the civic and social systems that are in place to reproduce Capitalistic culture and way of life.
One of the primary institutions he discusses is Schools, which he claims are "the dominant ideological State apparatus in capitalist social formations " NATC, Althusser explains that schools took the place of the church in uniting the family apparatus and the state. Schools function as a way to impart culture norms and class roles to new generations in a way that makes individuals accept their place without question. The author argues that schools children and their most sensitive ages and injects them with a pre-determined amount of knowledge, based on the class the children come from and the roles they are expected to maintain in society.
When these children leave school around the age of 16 or in our case, 18 , they are "ejected into production" as relatively unskilled, layman workers A few students carry on to pursue higher education, eventually being placed in white-collar work.
The rest fall into place as the "agents of exploitation" This category includes managers, politicians, and law enforcement. The main point of Althusser's argument in this section is that the capitalistic system keeps reproducing itself by educating citizens to fulfill certain roles in society. This works because the education system only trains people for the work that they will need to do in their class, making it very difficult to advance to a higher class or to break out of a given societal role.
Thompson criticizes Althusser for being "Stalinist" and completely ignoring the history of empirical evidence NATC Though Althusser did receive substantial criticism, his work has also had wide-ranging influence, serving as the foundation for the theories of leading contemporary Marxist theorists. Sign In Don't have an account?
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