Dictionary of Marketing

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It is owned by Google, after all. Hashtags are a way for you and your readers to interact with each other on social media and have conversations about a particular piece of content. They tie public conversations on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram together into a single stream, which users can find by searching for a hashtag, clicking on one, or using a third-party monitoring tool like HubSpot's Social Inbox.

The hashtags themselves are simply a keyword phrase, spelled out without spaces, with a pound sign in front of it -- like InboundChat and ChocolateLovers. You can put these hashtags anywhere in your social media posts. Learn more about how to use hashtags on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram here.

This is short for HyperText Markup Language, a language used to write web pages. It's at the core of every web page, regardless the complexity of a site or number of technologies involved, and provides the basic structure of the site -- which is then enhanced and modified by other technologies like CSS and JavaScript. Inbound marketing refers to marketing activities that draw visitors in, rather than marketers having to go out to get prospects' attention. It's all about earning the attention of customers, making the company easy to find online, and drawing customers to the website by producing interesting, helpful content.

Learn more about inbound marketing here. An inbound link is a link coming from another site to your own website. For example, here's an inbound link to our co-founder Dharmesh's blog. Dharmesh could say, "I received an inbound link from HubSpot. Websites that receive many inbound links can be more likely to rank higher in search engines.

They also help folks receive referral traffic from other websites. Learn more about inbound links here. A highly visual piece of content that is very popular among digital marketers as a way of relaying complex concepts in a simple and visual way. Learn more about how to create a knockout infographic here.

Though initially a haven only for younger generations who wanted to post, edit, and share unique-looking photos, Instagram has grown into a premier social network that's a viable opportunity for content marketers. Many businesses are taking advantage of the site by posting industry related photos that their followers and customers would enjoy seeing. Download our free guide on using Instagram for business here , or read this blog post for our favorite Instagram tips and tricks.

JavaScript is a programming language that lets web developers design interactive sites. Most of the dynamic behavior you'll see on a web page is thanks to JavaScript, which augments a browser's default controls and behaviors. Uses for JavaScript include pop-ups, slide-in calls-to-action, security password creation, check forms, interactive games, and special effects. It's also used to build mobile apps and create server-based applications. A type of performance measurement companies use to evaluate an employee's or an activity's success.

Marketers look at KPIs to track progress toward marketing goals, and successful marketers constantly evaluate their performance against industry standard metrics. Choose KPIs that represent how your marketing and business are performing. Here are some tips for choosing the right KPIs for your business. Sometimes referred to as "keyword phrases," keywords are the topics that webpages get indexed for in search results by engines like Google, Yahoo, and Bing. What are those, you ask? Learn how to do keyword research for SEO here. A landing page is a website page containing a form that is used for lead generation.

This page revolves around a marketing offer, such as an ebook or a webinar, and serves to capture visitor information in exchange for the valuable offer. Landing pages are the gatekeepers of the conversion path and are what separates a website visitor from becoming a lead. A smart inbound marketer will create landing pages that appeal to different personae plural for persona at various stages of the buying process.

A hefty endeavor no doubt, but one that pays off in spades. Download this ebook to learn more about landing pages and how to optimize them. A person or company who's shown interest in a product or service in some way, shape, or form. Perhaps they filled out a form, subscribed to a blog, or shared their contact information in exchange for a coupon. Generating leads is a critical part of a prospect's journey to becoming a customer, and it falls in between the second and third stages of the larger inbound marketing methodology , which you can see below.

Landing pages, forms, offers, and calls-to-action are just a few tools to help companies generate leads. Learn more about lead generation here. Inbound marketing is all about delivering valuable content to the right audience -- and lead nurturing helps foster this by providing contextually relevant information to a lead during different stages of the buying lifecycle.

LinkedIn is a business-oriented social networking site. Launched in May , it is mainly used for professional networking. Nowadays, with more than million registered members, LinkedIn is the most popular social network for professionals and one of the top social networks overall. Getting on the platform, developing a completed profile, and networking has helped many a jobseeker find work.

Click here to learn about using LinkedIn for professional networking, business, and marketing. These divisions serve as a way to describe the relationship you have with your audience, and can generally be broken down into three stages: awareness, evaluation, and purchase. What's important to understand about each of these stages is that not every piece of content you create is appropriate, depending on what stage your audience might fall in at that moment.

That's why dynamic content is so great -- you can serve up content that's appropriate for whatever stage that particular visitor is in. Learn more about how to map content to lifecycle stages here.

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A prediction of the net profit attributed to the entire future relationship with a customer. To calculate LTV, follow these steps for a given time period:. A long-tail keyword is a very targeted search phrase that contains three or more words. It often contains a head term, which is a more generic search term, plus one or two additional words that refine the search term. For example:. Long-tail keywords are more specific, which means visitors that land on your website from a long-tail search term are more qualified, and consequently, more likely to convert.

Think of marketing automation as the platform with associated tools and analytics to develop a lead nurturing strategy. Lead nurturing is the artist that makes it all come together. Like Bob Ross! Bonus: Want to get super-savvy with your marketing automation terminology? Take it to the next level with behavior-based marketing automation. Behavior-based marketing automation refers to a system that triggers emails and other communication based on user activity on and off your site. It enables marketers to nurture leads and send them information only when it is most relevant to their stage in the buying cycle.

Microsites are used when marketers want to create a different online experience for their audience separate from their main website. These sites often have their own domain names and distinct visual branding. Here's a list of 11 of the best microsite examples out there. This refers to the stage that a lead enters after identifying a problem. Typical middle of the funnel offers include case studies or product brochures -- essentially anything that brings your business into the equation as a solution to the problem the lead is looking to solve.

With mobile search queries officially surpassing desktop queries, now is probably the time to explore mobile marketing. What is it? Well, mobile marketing refers to the practice of optimizing marketing for mobile devices to provide visitors with time- and location- sensitive, personalized information for promoting goods, services, and ideas. This can be done by either creating a separate mobile website or incorporating responsive design in initial site layout. Google's algorithm now rewards mobile-friendly websites , so if your site isn't fully optimized for mobile devices, you will likely see a hit to your ranking on mobile searches.

Learn how to make your website mobile-friendly here. The amount of revenue a subscription-based business receives per month. A type of online advertising that takes on the form and function of the platform it appears on. Its purpose is to make ads feel less like ads, and more like part of the conversation. That means it's usually a piece of sponsored content that's relative to the consumer experience, isn't interruptive, and looks and feels similar to its editorial environment. Native advertising can come in many forms, whether it's radio announcers talking favorably about a product sponsoring the show, or an article about a product or company showing up in your news source.

Here are examples of some of the best native advertising out there. A customer satisfaction metric that measures, on a scale of , the degree to which people would recommend your company to others. The NPS is derived from a simple survey designed to help you determine how loyal your customers are to your business. To calculate NPS, subtract the percentage of customers who would not recommend you detractors, or from the percent of customers who would promoters, or Learn more about how to use NPS surveys for marketing here.

A news feed is an online feed full of news sources. On Facebook, the News Feed is the homepage of users' accounts where they can see all the latest updates from their friends. Learn all about Facebook's News Feed here. The news feed on Twitter is called Timeline. A no-follow link is used when a website does not want to pass search engine authority to another webpage.

It tells search engine crawlers not to follow or pass credit to linked websites as a way to avoid association with spammy content or inadvertently violating webmaster guidelines. To varying degrees, the no-follow attribute is recognized by all major search engines, like Google, Yahoo, and Bing. Not all links and linking domains are created equal, and a no-follow attribute helps avoid any foul play. Offers are content assets that live behind a form on a landing page. Their primary purpose is to help marketers generate leads for your business.

There are many different types of offers you could create, including ebooks, checklists, cheat sheets, webinars, demos, templates, and tools. If you need help putting together some high-quality offers your buyer personas will love, take some time to read over this post. Ensuring that key pieces of the specific page content, title tag, URL, and image tags include the desired keyword will help a page rank for that particular phrase.

This is the free-spirited cousin of on-page optimization. Off-page SEO refers to incoming links and other outside factors that impact how a webpage is indexed in search results. Factors like linking domains and even social media play a role in off-page optimization. The solution? Create useful, remarkable content and chances are people will share and link to it. A request to load a single web page on the internet. Marketers use them to analyze their website and to see if any change on the webpage results in more or fewer page views.

The amount of money spent to get a digital advertisement clicked. Also an internet advertising model where advertisers pay a publisher usually a search engine, social media site, or website owner a certain amount of money every time their ad is clicked. For search engines, PPC ads display an advertisement when someone searches for a keyword that matches the advertiser's keyword list, which they submit to the search engine ahead of time. PPC ads are used to direct traffic to the advertiser's website, and PPC is used to assess the cost effectiveness and profitability of your paid advertising campaigns.

Learn more about getting started with PPC here. A product matrix is a chart that describes the various products a business offers and the features that apply to each product. Product matrices typically assign each version of a product its own column along the top, with the features included in each version listed in rows down the lefthand side. For example, a business that sells three versions of the same product -- and 10 potential features across this product -- could create a product matrix with three columns and 10 rows. In each cell where a column and row intersect, the business can include a symbol or checkmark indicating that this feature is included in this version of the product.

This is useful in mobile commerce as it allows the marketer to design content based not only on the individual, but where the individual is at the point the message is delivered. GPS systems are also used in cars to provide mapping systems, which can also be aligned with appropriate marketing messages. Wikipedia Top Google. Individuals are now able to take advantage of purchasing economies of scale that previously were only afforded to large companies. This in itself helps the power shift away from the company, to the individual consumer, but when combined with the reverse pricing model can create a potent consumer weapon.

The essay, COMsumer Manifesto , details possible implications. Top Groupware: [gro] Groupware refers to technology that allows for groups of people to communicate from remote locations. The internet can be considered the ultimate open standard groupware technology! Applications typically included in groupware techology are calendars, discussion boards , project management tools, e-mail facilities etc.

Microsoft Exchange and Lotus Notes are the more common commercial applications. Wikipedia Top H Hackers and Crackers: [hac] Hackers is a term used for those who have been closely associated with the development of the computer, outside of the traditional corporate structure, and the free software movement also known as the Open Source movement.

Those that help develop code to improve or create new software, and share that code with fellow hackers. Hackers therefore make things. Crackers break things. Crackers are those who get their thrills by cracking software, creating viruses , and destroying things. Unfortunately media often confuse the terms, thus the term hacker, when mentioned in mainstream media, usually refers to crackers! The hacker philosophy is one of sharing, openness, and decentralization a distinct disdain for bureaucracy , that helps the innovative process and increases the knowledge-base of the culture.

The hacker culture typically has an antagonistic relationship with the corporate entities who dominate the technology industry this used to be IBM , and now Microsoft. Their values and belief systems are not aligned with these bureaucracies who hoard knowledge and turn it into their selfish gain, rather than share knowledge and believe in the freedom of knowledge. Along these lines, hackers believe in the selflessness in favor of the common good.

Communities of hackers can be found at sites like Slashdot. Clearly this culture experiences network effects. The more people involved and contributing to a particular project, the more each person involved benefits from each others' innovations. This clearly answers the question as to how the Linux operating system was able to become a more robust operating system according to some than the Windows operating system, in a much shorter time frame. Key figures in the hacker community are Richard Stallman believes that all software should be free , Linus Torvalds initiator and leader of the Linux development and Eric Raymond believes software should be free when it makes business sense.

Wikipedia Top Header: [hea] The header component of a web page comprises the title and the meta tags and any style sheet content CSS. All elements critical for marketing and design of a web page. A web page includes two components, the header and the body component.

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The body component includes the content that is visible to the user. By clicking the "view" and then the "source" option of the web browser, you can see the header and body tags for this document. Top Hewlett-Packard [hewlettpackard] : hp.

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  7. Total hits for a page will therefore equal the number of times the page is accessed X the number of files included on a page. Thus a page that includes one graphic file will serve two files when it is accessed; the html file of the page, and the image file the page calls. This is a metric that is often misused when media quote the activity a web page receives. To double the number of hits, simply double the number of files the page includes. Better metrics, for web analytics , include impressions and page views.

    Wikipedia Top Homepage: [hom] The homepage of a web site is the entry point to the site. It is the page that will usually have a web address URL that ends with. The actual filename, in the above scenarios, is index. While the homepage is designed to be the entry point to a web site, designers cannot assume that all viewers will enter the web site by that page. It is important to consider all pages as potential entry points, and design all pages to market the site online search engine optimization etc.

    Wikipedia Top Hotmail: [hotmail] Hotmail. Thus any part of the document word or phrase can launch another document, or another part of the same document, via a hyperlink. In this example, the word web is hyperlinking to an explanation of the word, which appears at the end of this dictionary! The W3C is the organization charged with ensuring the compatibility of HTML with competing browsers and other web languages. The following is a brief historical timeline of the development of HTML. You can also view the HTML used for this and any page by accessing 'view' 'view source' from the top left of your browser.

    Essentially this only requires knowledge of very limited information, including a social security number. While most Identity Theft still occurs through traditional means of scouring house hold waste materials, the threat of theft over the internet is a concern for e-commerce.


    The advanced dictionary of marketing : putting theory to use

    It can occur as data is in transit for a transaction or data that is stored on a company's site, that is stolen, or from phishing activities. Theft can also occur via google hacking i. Identity theft is a major concern for privacy advocates. Wikipedia Top Page Impressions: [imp] Impressions refers to the number of times a page is accessed over a fixed period of time.

    Thus if a page receives 1, impressions per day, then that page is accessed 1, over the course of the day. This term is often confused with hits , which is actually an incorrect use of this term hits and number of impressions would be the same if the page was simply a text page with no additional files associated with it. Page impressions also equals the number of times an advertisement is served, assuming a banner is served each time the page is accessed. Impressions are a metric used in web analytics.

    Wikipedia Top Increasing Returns: [inc] Increasing returns refers to the notion that the greater the size of the network, the greater the advantage of each participant of the network network effects. Each participant of the network brings value to the overall network. This is in contrast to diminishing returns which refers to the greater the size number of users the less each participant can benefit from participation. Broad examples of increasing returns include an open source project the more contributors, the better the product and a proprietary communications device the more users of the device, the more people with whom a user can conmmunicate.

    Google's search engine experiences increasing returns. The more content it houses in its databases, the more links it has pointing to various sites on the internet. In bound links are an aspect of the PageRank system that provides the google results.

    The Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Marketing

    These results therefore improve as the volume of content increases this was not the case for more traditional engines like Alta Vista that were based principally on keywords only, which does not scale as well. Another example of increasing returns can be seen with Amazon's recommendation system, via collaborative filtering. The more users that are using the Amazon system, the greater the integrity of the recommendation system.

    Wikipedia Top Industrial Revolution: [ind] This is the period of time that occured after developments such as the steam combustion engine allowed for more efficient production of goods. The advent of the assembly line etc. It basically changed production from single goods to mass production. Mid s to early s. Wikipedia Top Infomediaries: [inf] Infomediaries are channel intermediaries that are based on the transfer of information using the web.

    They are replacing traditional intermediaries in many distribution channels. Infomediaries include meta markets , portals , search engines , and bots. Top Installed-Base: [ins] The installed-base refers to the customer-base of digital products. The company will have records of these customers demographic and purchase behaviour , and will be able to use these records in order to try to monetize the installed-base. Companies try to develop switching costs , in order to encourage their installed-base to remain loyal.

    By estimating the life-time value of a customer in the installed-base, we can estimate the value of the company. Instant messaging services also allow users to determine when other users are online. Given that users can only communicate with other users on the same network, these services are certainly good examples of services that take advantage of viral marketing. It is likely that, with time, these services may standardize , so users of one network will be able to communicate with users on another network.

    This model makes more sense, and is used for a similar service, text messaging on cell phones, more common in countries outside the United States. Wikipedia Top Intellectual Property: [intell] Intellectual property refers to the rights provided to the owner of an expressed idea; invention; authored piece of work; a process; or a name attached to a company or product.

    A copyright protects creative content such as books, software and art. The copyright controls the potential for reproduction of the works. A patent protects an invention and an innovative process. A patent provides exclusive use of the invention for a fixed period of time. This creates a monopoly for the invention. A trademark is a sign, name or symbol that distinguishes one company, or product, from another. It is designed to reduce customer confusion. Intellectual property is granted on a territorial basis, but harmonization is occuring via international treaties within the WTO for instance.

    Wikipedia Top Intelligent Agents: [inte] Intelligent Agents are " bots " designed to work for the user in terms of executing transactions typically search queries at this point across the web. It is assumed that as Intelligent Agents become more sophisticated, they can accomplish more complex tasks for their users. Once they understand their users' requirements, they can act somewhat independently of user interaction, in terms of making online purchasing decisions and other tasks that currently require significant search and user decision making processes.

    Intelligent Agents will also become more useful as the semantic web develops. Wikipedia Top Interstitial Pages: [inter] Interstitial pages are a form of online advertising that appears between web pages that the user requests. Thus when a user elects to enter or exit a web-site, a page appears with its advertisement, in place of the requested page, the user then needs to select from that page to receive the page requested or the advertisement page will disappear after a fixed time.

    This is a form of interruption advertising similar to broadcast models but this form of web advertising breaks information design rules, as the user had a certain set of expectations when making the page selection, the interstitial page did not match expectations. An intranet belongs to an organization, and is designed to be accessible only by the organization's members, employees, or others with authorization.

    An intranet's Web site looks and acts just like other Web sites, but has a firewall surrounding it to fend off unauthorized users. Intranets are used to share information. Secure intranets are much less expensive to build and manage than private, proprietary-standard networks EDI. Wikipedia Top IP Address: [ipa] An IP address is a numerical address of the computer broken into 4 groups of 3 digit numbers lower than In most cases, these addresses are unique for each internet connected computer throughout the world.

    There is an exception to the uniqueness of addresses: Specific groups of addresses are set aside for use on internal networks for machines not connected to the internet or trying to conserve address space. These addresses are either Use of these addresses is becoming more popular due to the shortage of addresses, which makes individual addresses expensive to obtain and keep, and the costs associated with changing all network addresses when changing ISPs, and the popularity of internet connection sharing in small business or home networks.

    The IP address can also be used to help determine from where a web browser is located. This enables sites to present content specific to the location of the browser. For example Amazon is able to present amazon. Sites can also restrict access to a range of IP addresses, therefore Google is able to limit IP addresses originated in China to google. Similarly sites can present unique content to individual IP addresses based on previous activity with that IP address.

    This helps with personalization. As a web browser, we access a computer on the web by calling the domain name , which masks the IP address. Domain names are easier to recall. Domain names serve as the first part of the URL web address. The IPO of a company serves as a significant liquidity opportunity for early investors, including founders and the Venture Capital investors. The connection between the consumer and the ISP is typically the slowest aspect of the internet also known as the last mile problem. Wikipedia Top K Keyword: [key] Keyword is the term used for words included in a web page that would match words used by web surfers in finding that web page via a search engine.

    Identifying appropriate keywords and using them on a web site is important for search engine optimization. Keywords can simply be words included in the body text of the document, or added to the header using meta tags to increase the number of keywords. Using keywords in the title tag is also important. Selecting keywords, that match your target audiences' use of the web when searching your product, is a critical marketing tactic.

    As with a chain, the quality of access is governed by the weakest link, thus the slow connection impacts the entire web browsing experience. This issue evolved due to the lack of competition in the telecom industry, until very recently. Therefore technology innovation was not as rapid read very slow compared to other innovations governed by Moore's Law. Some users in the U. Broadband access , via cable modems and DSL technologies are beginning to become more widely adopted. Wikipedia Top Learning Curve: [lea] The learning curve also known as the experience curve represents the outcome of a company's experience when developing a product.

    The learning curve effect has a significant role in helping companies benefit from first-mover advantage. Later entrants into the marketplace have a difficult time overcoming the experience advantage, as first-movers release additional versions of the product. Wikipedia Top Legacy Business: [leg] Legacy Business refers to a traditional business that develops a web presence to transact business.

    Barnes and Noble is an example. This is in contrast to a pure play business, which is developed as a new entity for the web, and had no prior presence, such as amazon. Top License: [lic] A license is used to allow the author of a piece of software intellectual property to establish the rights of a user in terms of the copy of that software that contains the license. Unlike tangible goods, which are clearly limited in terms of what an owner can do with the product, digital goods are easy to make perfect copies.

    It is therefore important to establish limits. While the user may have purchased a digital copy, this does not imply freedom of use of that copy. The license will detail what the user is able to do in terms of resell, number of machines the software can be applied, making modifications to the software etc.

    The free software movement also known as open source has created a set of licenses that creates greater freedom of use of software, which is more appropriate for innovation among the hacker community. Wikipedia Top Lifetime Value: [lif] Lifetime Value of the Customer determines the value of a customer to a firm, over the lifecycle of that customer. This removes the focus on individual transactions with customers and has become increasingly used with the developments of technology and market research, and thus the ability to focus on narrower target markets , even to the individual consumer in some cases.

    Lifetime Value is an important measure used for relationship marketing programs. Lifetime Value of Customers was a popular metric for internet firms as they built their customer-bases. In order to calculate the Lifetime Value, the company needs to determine the cost of customer acquisition, and the cost of customer retention, the average lifetime of a customer, and the average value the customer provides over its lifetime. It is important to distinguish between customer acquisition and retention, as this will allow marketers to understand the true value of a specific marketing campaign cost of acquisition , and the value new customers can bring over their lifecycle value to company - cost of retention.

    Wikipedia Top Linux: [lin] : Linux is an open source free sofware kernel developed by Linus Torvalds , and uses software tools developed by the GNU project to comprise an open source operating system. It mimics the Unix kernel, but was written from scratch with no proprietary code. Its development cycle has been relatively short compared to the proprietary based Windows operating system and is considered by some to be technically superior. Due to this, it has become the "poster child" for the open source community it stimulated the interest of Eric Raymond and the paper Cathedral and Bazaar and free software in general.

    Linux did prove to be the "missing link" for the GNU project by providing a usable operating system kernel, which has been packaged into a complete free software operating system by other hackers and commercial distributors principal commercial distributor: Red Hat. Linux has wide adoption in the much smaller server side operating system market. Its penetration on the client side where windows is dominant has been limited to the hacker community. Wikipedia Top Lock-in: [loc] Lock-in refers to the ability of companies to ensure their customers do not switch to competitors, thus switching costs can establish lock-in.

    Switching costs can be established in many ways. The usability of a product can establish lock-in for that product, as customers learn how to use the product, they don't want to reinvest in learning how to use competing products. Wall Street Journal is a good example of trying to establish this type of lock-in. It heavily discounts its product to the education market, hoping that as people get used to getting their business information via the Journal, they will continue to do so after they graduate and begin working.

    The user interface of digital products are another example of this type of lock-in. The airlines establish lock-in by developing frequent flyer programs. As people fly more with one airline, the benefits they receive increase, in a non-linear fashion. B2B markets, that increasingly rely on relationships and long-term contracts are clearly prone to lock-in. Wikipedia Top M Marginal Costs: [marcost] Marginal costs are the costs associated with creating an additional unit of product.

    This is similar to variable costs , which are the costs that increase directly with the increase in production unlike fixed costs. Digital products typically have very low marginal costs, when compared with traditional goods materials, labor etc. The consumer is bearing the distribution costs, and there are no packaging costs. This is why companies are able to market their products for free on their web sites, in order to try to entice further purchases at a later time in the hopes of creating lock-in perhaps.

    Netscape pioneered this approach and was able to offer its versions of its browser on its web site, changing the way software is marketed. This enabled them to create significant market share very quickly. They were able to do this, due to zero marginal costs. Wikipedia Top Marginal Consumer: [marcon] Marginal Consumers are the consumers that value the product least in terms of it satisfying their needs the value proposition for the product is weakest among those that purchase the product.

    They are most likely to switch to other products to satisfy their needs, and will be the first in the marketplace to do so, if the marketplace changes in favor of another product to satisfy the same needs. Top Market: [mark] A market traditionally referred to a place where buyers and sellers met to exchange goods. The exchange is a function of the positive sum relationship of the buyer and seller. A market is now better defined as a group of buyers and sellers for a particular product a group of people who share a similar need.

    The advent of technology industrial revolution has seen the separation of supply and consumption, hence the broader term for a market. Types of markets include consumer the exchange involves the final consumer, also known as B2C ; business exchange involves another organization, also known as B2B ; global exchange involves overseas parties ; and government or non-profit. Each of these types of markets includes different marketing challenges, and thus different focuses within the marketing mix. For markets to be effective, rules legal framework need to be established.

    Thus as emerging markets countries mature, and legal frameworks are better established, their respective markets will become more vibrant. Wikipedia Top Marketing Mix: [mix] A Marketing Mix is the combination of product offerings used to reach a target market for the organization. The marketing mix comprises the P roduct what the actual offering comprises , P rice the value exchanged for that offering , P romotion the means of communicating that offering to the target audience, promotional mix and distribution also known as P lace, the means of having the product offering available to the target audience.

    The marketing mix is also known as the four Ps. Wikipedia Top Market Segmentation: [seg] The method of identifying a group of consumers, within a broader market, that has similar characteristics and needs. Segments can be identified by examining demographic, psychographic, and behavioral differences.

    Thus a car manufacturer may identify different types of consumers preferring different styles of cars, so they will segment their car buying markets accordingly. Perhaps identifying that younger car buyers, with high incomes, will be more likely to buy a sports car, while an older population of car buyers may be more apt to purchase a town car. Once these segments are identified, marketers can develop unique marketing mixes that target each segment. For example, the marketer may identify a number of specialty magazines that the young affluent market reads, thus they will run their advertisements for sports cars in these magazines.

    Wikipedia Top Mass Customization: [mas] Mass Customization is the ability to produce products, customized to the individual, at a large scale, at a price that is similar to mass produced products. Mass customization requires a system for customers to specify their requirements and a build-to-order approach thus there is no inventory in this system. Dell is a good example of a company that has adopted mass customization.

    Mass customization is not the same as personalization , the use of data about an individual to create a unique marketing presentation to that individual. Once m-commerce becomes ubiquitous it has greater rates of acceptance in places like Europe and Japan than it does in the US due to standards that have developed Japan the standard is I-mode , in europe is WAP , it will change the utility of the web from a business standpoint. Contextual Marketing , the ability to communicate with a person when the person is likely to be receptive to the communication, will further evolve, due to the mobility of access versus a PC.

    GPS is used to identify where someone is located. SMS is the messaging system across mobile devises that complements m-commerce. Wikipedia Top Medium, Media: [med] Medium is the means of communication. Commonly referred to by its plural, media. Typical commercial media are TV, radio, newspapers and magazines. The internet, and its various components are media. The web, as a medium, is quite different to other, more traditional, media. It is a distributed medium, thus the content that the medium communicates originates from many web servers around the world 75 million web-sites January The web is a non-linear medium.

    Thus unlike other media, the consumer controls the navigation, due to the hypertext design. With other media, the marketer has more control on how the receiver receives the message. The web is a multi-media medium. This is in terms of its hyperlinking scheme, and its use of text, audio and video. If one considers various components of the web chat rooms and discussion boards and e-mail actually an aspect of the internet, but enhanced by the web then multi-media takes an additional meaning in terms of the types of communication it fosters.

    The web is a niche medium, it can satisfy the needs of those with obscure interests much like it can for those with mainstream interests. The web is an unobtrusive medium, thus users need to seek out the website, rather than having the web presence "pushed" to the consumer obtrusive, like TV, radio, email etc. The web is a self-serve medium. Consumers can use the web, when they want, in order to satisfy their informational needs. RSS and other Web 2. Wikipedia Top Meta Market: [meta] Meta Market is a web-based market centered around an event or an industry, rather than a single product.

    These are markets of complementary products that are closely related in the minds of consumers, but spread across different industries. The web allows us to match producers' desire for economies of scale , and consumers' desire for variety of choice to satisfy a set of needs.

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    Thus we can have a meta market for a wedding event that includes honeymoon recommendations, sources for engagement rings and wedding gowns. Equally we can have a meta market for an entire industry for example chemical industry where the industry can trade excess inventory, source new suppliers and find new vendors. These types of markets are easier to establish in the web world, than they were before the web, and can prove very effective. The most common meta tags allow the designer to include additional keywords into a document keyword meta tag and specify the text that appears when a search engine includes the document in its database subject meta tag.

    They are therefore useful for increasing the utility of the document as it is cataloged by a search engine SEO. If you click on the View option of your browser, and click on source, you can view these two meta tags for this dictionary. Wikipedia Top Metcalfe's Law: [metc] Metcalfe's Law states the number of possible cross-connections in a network grow as the square of the number of computers in the network increases. This is the law that governs network effects. The original quote, by Robert Metcalfe : "The power of the network increases exponentially by the number of computers connected to it.

    Therefore, every computer added to the network both uses it as a resource while adding resources in a spiral of increasing value and choice. They are being considered for digital content on the web. For example, a magazine selling an article unbundled rather than an entire issue bundled with additional information that may not be of interest to the consumer. This may then create alternate business models for content providers. Wikipedia Top Monopoly: [mon] Monopoly is a marketplace structured such that it is supplied by one marketer, or one marketer has an overwhelming marketshare.

    There is thus no material competition in the marketplace. A monopolistic company has such advantages over consumers and other firms it tends to 'misbehave'. Gordon Moore , in , observed that the number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits had doubled every year since the integrated circuit was invented. In subsequent years, the pace has slowed down a bit, but data density has doubled approximately every 18 months, and this is the current definition of Moore's Law, which Moore himself has blessed.

    It is able to reduce the file size while, for the most part, maintaining the integrity of the audio. It is the adopted file format for podcasting and is very popular for iTunes and file sharing sites. Wikipedia Top Multi-Level Marketing [mul] : Multi-level marketing MLM is a marketing system that rewards consumer resellers for the sale of the product and for the recruitment of other resellers for the product. Typically resellers are paid a commission on what they directly sell, and a smaller commission on their recruits' sales and their recruits' recruits' sales etc.

    This is the multi-level aspect of the term. Amway and Avon are the more recognized marketers that use this sales method. With the evolution of the web, we are seeing internet firms adopting this strategy with a viral marketing style program. Both viral marketing and MLM programs rely on the connectivity of consumers. Viral marketing programs do not offer an economic incentive to attract new customers, unlike MLM programs.

    Affiliate programs are also an example of MLM. Wikipedia Top N Napster: [napster] Napster. For a positive spiral, a positive event occurs, this triggers another positive event, this then has a positive effect on the first event etc. Thus if someone enters to participate in a network purchases a fax machine then that person increases the value of each fax machine in the network, since the fax machine is now more useful.

    This increased value encourages more people to purchase fax machines, which in turn increases the value of each fax machine, as a user can use it to communicate with more people. This is more commonly known as the fax effect, and while its example is a little dated, the concept still applies for growing networks. A negative spiral occurs when simultaneous negative events impact each other.

    Either instance with have a further impact on the remaining consumers, and more consumers may therefore leave the market for the product, compounding the effect. Once this spiral occurs, many products will inevitably not survive. The Betamax standard is a good example of this. Traditional news media are also falling prey to a negative spiral as people source their news online and classified advertisements, part of a newspaper's business model , are also moving online.

    Top Netiquette: [neti] Netiquette refers to "internet etiquette. For such an environment to be effective, those participating need to follow the etiquette that is established. Thus netiquette refers to an established set of rules developed by the community itself, rather than an independent body. Since each participant of the internet has an incentive to see the internet prosper, we are more likely to want to follow netiquette to insure future growth of the internet, similar to the prisoners dilemma scenario.

    While as an individual, over the short term you may benefit from violating certain aspects on netiquette defecting: using spam for example , in the long run, if everyone adopted such a philosophy, the internet would no longer be a useful medium , for anyone. Wikipedia Top Networked Economy: [net] This refers to the fact that as consumers, we are now connected together, through the network of the internet.

    This increases the likelihood of consumers sharing information, as the cost of sharing information decreases and the means for doing so increases. This has a significant impact on the field of marketing and brand management. No longer do marketers control the messages they use to market their products to consumers. Consumers are now talking to each other and are becoming a viable source of information for other consumers. The viral marketing effect occurs due to a networked economy, as information is passed through networks at great speed. The connectivity that occurs in the market is enhanced as markets adopt specific communications standards.

    Once a standard has been adopted, the market can become more effective. Thus standards become very important in establishing a market and the subsequent success of the market in a networked economy. This is also known as increasing returns to scale and a positive spiral. This effect is common in digital products , more specifically, products that benefit from the connectivity of the customer base. It is designed to make submitting notices of alleged infringement to us as straightforward as possible while reducing the number of notices that we receive that are fraudulent or difficult to understand or verify.

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