Diverse genetic backgrounds further complicate the prediction of phenotypes, with some more susceptible to certain conditions than others. The APOE gene for example has three different phenotypes, each with a different probability of CVD risk, and all responding differently to diet and lifestyle factors . A recent editorial in Genes and Nutrition by NUGO, emphasised the importance of taking a systems approach in future research, with human research studies that incorporate the totality of diet interactions required in order for nutrigenomics to reach its full potential.
Debate remains around the relative impact of genes on the development of chronic disease. Neither genes nor our diets alone can therefore entirely explain why some are predisposed to develop certain conditions. On the question of personalised nutrition, and whether nutrigenomics can help to effect sustainable individual diet and lifestyle changes, the recent EU-funded multi-centre Food4Me trial attempted to answer some of these questions.
Developing algorithms that integrated information on diet, phenotype and genotype, the trial suggested that personalised nutrition approaches can offer larger health gains than adhering to standard dietary guidelines. However, it should be noted that no significant difference was found between a personalised nutrition approach reliant on counselling, and personalised approaches using genotypic and phenotypic information .
Indeed, despite trials such as Food4Me , we are not yet at the stage where routine public healthcare encompasses either personalised nutrition or nutrigenomics. In bringing together the science of bioinformatics, nutrition, epidemiology, molecular biology and genomics, much remains to be both discovered and determined, but future nutrigenomics research will no doubt provide further intriguing insights into both nutritional science and the human genome.
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Nutrigenomics, individualism and public health. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. Nutriproteomics has great potential as a tool for personalized nutrition. Specifically, nutriproteomics delivers two essential outputs for molecular nutrition research and applications in personalized nutrition: 1 the characterization and quantification of food-derived bioactive peptides and proteins and 2 the elucidation of biomarkers for mechanism- of-action, efficacy and side effects of nutritional interventions.
This article introduces the new field of nutriproteomics in the context of nutrition and health research and discusses protein- and peptide-derived bioactives and biomarkers, highlights human proteome variability and how best to translate this field into personalized nutrition.
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The paper concludes with a status quo and outlook on nutriproteomics studies and technologies. Abstract: Nutrition research has traditionally focused on providing adequate amounts of nutrients to nourish populations and prevent nutrient deficiencies. Volume 8 , Issue 4 , Nature Biotechnol. Ideker, T. Integrated genomic and proteomic analyses of a systematically perturbed metabolic network. A new approach to decoding life: systems biology. Jansen, R. Studying complex biological systems using multifactorial perturbation.
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Nutriproteomics – Linking Proteomics Variation with Personalized Nutrition | Bentham Science
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Target gene search for the metal-responsive transcription factor MTF Nucleic Acids Res. Blanchard, R. Modulation of intestinal gene expression by dietary zinc status: effectiveness of cDNA arrays for expression profiling of a single nutrient deficiency. Xiao, J. The effect of chronic exposure to fatty acids on gene expression in clonal insulin-producing cells: studies using high density oligonucleotide microarray. Endo, Y. Dietary protein quantity and quality affect rat hepatic gene expression.
Mariadason, J. Genetic reprogramming in pathways of colonic cell maturation induced by short chain fatty acids: comparison with trichostatin A, sulindac, and curcumin and implications for chemoprevention of colon cancer. Cancer Res. Download references. The authors thank their colleagues from the Division of Human Nutrition, the Centre of Human Nutrigenomics and the Innovative Cluster Nutrigenomics group for critical discussions.
The early and immediate set of homeostatic control reactions that are induced during inflammation. A half tubule that is formed by the apical membranes of two hepatocytes, and is limited laterally by their smooth surfaces. The apical membrane of liver epithelial cells hepatocytes that lines the bile canaliculus. Members of the ABC-transporter superfamily that are localized in this membrane are responsible for bile secretion. The complex series of reactions that occur in the host as a response to injury, trauma or infection of a tissue, which prevent ongoing tissue damage, isolate and destroy the infective organism and activate the repair processes that are necessary to return the organism to normal function.
A method in which cells are cut out from a tissue sample using a laser beam, allowing single cell expression analysis. A type of white blood cell that is responsible for the adaptive immune response; for example, B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Organic compounds, including proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids, that are required in large amounts in the diet.
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