Start by grouping the first two terms on the right-hand side using parentheses:. Next determine the constant that, when added inside the parentheses, makes the quantity inside the parentheses a perfect square trinomial. To do this, take half the coefficient of x and square it. This equation is now in standard form. The graph of this parabola appears as follows.

The axis of symmetry of a vertical opening up or down parabola is a vertical line passing through the vertex. The parabola has an interesting reflective property. Suppose we have a satellite dish with a parabolic cross section. If a beam of electromagnetic waves, such as light or radio waves, comes into the dish in a straight line from a satellite parallel to the axis of symmetry , then the waves reflect off the dish and collect at the focus of the parabola as shown. Consider a parabolic dish designed to collect signals from a satellite in space.

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## Conic Sections

The dish is aimed directly at the satellite, and a receiver is located at the focus of the parabola. Radio waves coming in from the satellite are reflected off the surface of the parabola to the receiver, which collects and decodes the digital signals. This allows a small receiver to gather signals from a wide angle of sky. Flashlights and headlights in a car work on the same principle, but in reverse: the source of the light that is, the light bulb is located at the focus and the reflecting surface on the parabolic mirror focuses the beam straight ahead.

This allows a small light bulb to illuminate a wide angle of space in front of the flashlight or car. An ellipse can also be defined in terms of distances. In the case of an ellipse, there are two foci plural of focus , and two directrices plural of directrix.

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We look at the directrices in more detail later in this section. An ellipse is the set of all points for which the sum of their distances from two fixed points the foci is constant. Both are the same fixed distance from the origin, and this distance is represented by the variable c.

The major axis is always the longest distance across the ellipse, and can be horizontal or vertical. Thus, the length of the major axis in this ellipse is 2a. The minor axis is the shortest distance across the ellipse. The minor axis is perpendicular to the major axis.

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According to the definition of the ellipse, we can choose any point on the ellipse and the sum of the distances from this point to the two foci is constant. Suppose we choose the point P. Using the distance formula, we get. Isolate the variables on the left-hand side of the equation and the constants on the right-hand side:.

This line segment forms a right triangle with hypotenuse length a and leg lengths b and c.

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Therefore the equation of the ellipse becomes. Then the equation of this ellipse in standard form is. If the major axis is horizontal, then the ellipse is called horizontal, and if the major axis is vertical, then the ellipse is called vertical. The equation of an ellipse is in general form if it is in the form. To convert the equation from general to standard form, use the method of completing the square.

We need to determine the constant that, when added inside each set of parentheses, results in a perfect square. In the first set of parentheses, take half the coefficient of x and square it. Since the first set of parentheses has a 9 in front, we are actually adding 36 to the left-hand side. Similarly, we are adding 36 to the second set as well.

Therefore the equation becomes. The equation is now in standard form. The graph of this ellipse appears as follows. A commonly held misconception is that Earth is closer to the Sun in the summer.

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In fact, in summer for the northern hemisphere, Earth is farther from the Sun than during winter. Ellipses also have interesting reflective properties: A light ray emanating from one focus passes through the other focus after mirror reflection in the ellipse. The same thing occurs with a sound wave as well. The National Statuary Hall in the U. This hall served as the meeting place for the U.

House of Representatives for almost fifty years.

The location of the two foci of this semi-elliptical room are clearly identified by marks on the floor, and even if the room is full of visitors, when two people stand on these spots and speak to each other, they can hear each other much more clearly than they can hear someone standing close by. Legend has it that John Quincy Adams had his desk located on one of the foci and was able to eavesdrop on everyone else in the House without ever needing to stand.

Although this makes a good story, it is unlikely to be true, because the original ceiling produced so many echoes that the entire room had to be hung with carpets to dampen the noise. The ceiling was rebuilt in and only then did the now-famous whispering effect emerge. Viewed times. Nothing too over the top, I am still a first year student!

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## ISBN 13: 9788183560009

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