The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory


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Although likely reciprocal, we expect that at the level of tasks or events much of the direction goes from motivations i. The pursuit of intrinsically-derived goals has been associated with better subjective well-being, more positive affect, less negative physical symptoms, and less negative affect e.

Deci and Ryan ; argued that any action can be categorized as either motivated or amotivated. In contrast, motivated behavior is experienced as purposefully and deliberately enacted. The reasons for goal pursuit fall into two categories, namely intrinsic i. Intrinsically motivating tasks are always experienced as autonomous i. As a result of this process, individuals can experience more or less autonomous forms of extrinsic motivation.

The least internalized type of extrinsic motivation is external regulation which is when external contingencies guide actions. An example is when an employee only performs an activity because of the promise of compensation or the threat of punishment e. Representing a more internalized form of extrinsic motivation, introjected regulation occurs when the person has come to self-administer rewards or punishments associated with the activity.

With both external and introjected motivations, the individual experiences tasks as controlling, which make them less likely to result in psychological need satisfaction, and therefore, well-being. Another form of extrinsic motivation that is more internalized is identified regulation. However, the person has not fully internalized the reasons for the doing the tasks, though the person understands the tasks and Citation: Greguras, G.

Here, the activity is experienced as being moderately autonomous and moderately controlling. However, researchers observed that these differences were not present for boring or mundane tasks e. Further, more autonomous forms of motivation are linked to higher job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and well- being than are more controlled forms of motivation e. These findings are consistent with self-determination theory such that those behaviors that are more self-determined and therefore more autonomously motivated result in positive outcomes for the individual.

The self-concordance model is grounded in SDT and delineates the processes by which motivation for specific activities relates to well- being, need satisfaction, and other outcomes. The model begins when people adopt a goal and addresses the longitudinal process from initial goal adoption to effort allocation and to goal attainment, need satisfaction, and other positive outcomes.

As implied by the name of the Citation: Greguras, G. Self-concordance is often operationalized by creating an overall autonomous motivation score and an overall controlled motivation score for a goal and then subtracting controlled motivation from autonomous motivation. Specifically, individuals with a positive self regard, measured in terms of core self evaluations, were more likely to pursue self-concordant goals Judge et al.

The self-concordance model also was specified as a mechanism through which transformational leaders affect performance and well- being of their followers.

It seems apparent from the existing literature on self-concordance that there may be other, broad precursors to autonomous goal pursuit. PE fit is a concept that warrants investigation as an antecedent to the established of self-concordant goals. An important process in SDT is the internalization of extrinsically-motivating tasks or goals.

Given that psychological need satisfaction is influenced by the pursuit of more autonomous tasks, it is important to understand what organizations can do to better ensure that work tasks are internalized by their employees. Citation: Greguras, G. The degree to which individuals come to naturally value and pursue tasks that important others value, can greatly affect acceptance into social groups and the development of social networks.

In sum, the work demands need to align with personal values and employee strengths to better ensure that the person cares about the work and feels fully utilized on the job. Further, changing the way leaders interact with their employees can enhance the internalization process. Specifically, leaders who provide a meaningful rationale for tasks, acknowledge that tasks may not be interesting, and provide choices in pursuing activities can lead individuals to feel more autonomous in the pursuit of goals and tasks Baard et al.

We argue in subsequent sections that different aspects of PE fit can influence psychological need satisfaction by either directly creating opportunities to experience more autonomous motivation or through the process of greater internalization of external activities. Although research is scarce regarding the mechanisms accounting for why PE fit results in favorable outcomes, as we discuss through the remainder of the chapter, several theoretical explanations for these relationships suggest a connection with SDT and need satisfaction. PE fit is the overarching framework encompassing distinct types of fit and different environmental foci.

Supplementary fit exists when a person possesses similar or matching characteristics to the environment and is most often represented by examining value congruence Kristof Value congruence frequently is used to operationalize fit because values are seen Citation: Greguras, G. These types of fit, DA fit, NS fit, and value congruence, can be conceptualized at different environmental levels or foci.

For example, person-organization PO fit refers to the degree to which an individual fits with the organization. Aside from the organizational level, complementary and supplementary fit have been investigated at the group, job, and individual level. Person-group PG fit, person-job PJ fit, and person-supervisor PS fit are common designations for the various conceptualizations at these levels respectively Kristof-Brown et al.

For example, PJ fit operationalized in terms of needs-supplies fit had stronger associations with attidudinal outcomes than PJ fit operationalized in terms of demands-abilities fit Kristof-Brown et al. Meta-analyzed correlations in Kristof-Brown et al. Although the different Citation: Greguras, G. In addition to multiple operational definitions, there are various techniques for measuring fit and analyzing fit data. Indirect fit approaches require the employee to rate both the self P and a focal other E on some dimensions of interest.

As such, the objective and indirect methods primarily differ on from where the information on the focal other E come: the employee themselves indirect or some other source objective. Both the objective and indirect approaches require mathematical comparison of the person and environment to determine fit. The most appropriate method for calculating and representing these mathematical comparisons has been the subject of some debate in the literature Edwards, In contrast to the first two approaches, the direct fit approach elicits a summary judgment from individuals regarding how well they fit the environment on a particular dimension or dimensions.

This measurement strategy has been used most often to assess fit Edwards et al. As discussed by Edwards and colleagues , the direct approach to assessing fit may involve either the discrepancy that a person perceives between the Citation: Greguras, G. Direct measures of fit based on subjective perceptions have been widely used because perceptions of fit or misfit are believed to affect employee attitudes and behaviors more strongly than objective or indirect fit that relies on researcher calculations e.

However, Edwards et al. As such, researchers should remain cognizant of the implications associated with various approaches to fit measurement. Although research is sparse concerning antecedents of fit Edwards, et al. Despite the application of this PE fit framework to many organizational phenomena, little is known about the psychological mechanisms and processes through which PE fit relates to outcomes. Although need satisfaction or fulfillment is a central aspect of both self- determination and PE fit theories, the conceptualization of needs differs between these theoretical frameworks.

Because the needs are conceptualized differently, we first discuss these differences prior to discussing how PE fit may satisfy employee needs. However, as discussed in Greguras and Diefendorff , needs are conceptualized differently in these two literatures thereby requiring a few words of clarification. In the PE fit literature, and indeed in the majority of organizational research, needs are often equated with desires Baard et al. For example, if an employee desires a higher degree of work-family balance, the PE fit literature would identify this desire for more balance as a need.

Similarly, if an employee wants a higher salary, salary would be considered a need in the PE fit literature. However, a better work-family balance and a higher salary would be considered desires or wants, but not needs, by SDT. As such, a better work-life balance would not be considered innate, essential, or universal, and therefore, would not be considered a need. In the PE fit literature, the difference between what an employee wants or desires and what the employee actually receives NS fit represents the amount of misfit.

In contrast, in SDT, it is not the satisfaction of desires that leads to favorable outcomes per se, but Citation: Greguras, G. Only to the degree that satisfying desires also satisfies our psychological needs e. Indeed, satisfying desires that do not lead to the satisfaction of psychological needs may lead to positive or negative outcomes e.

A basic premise of this chapter is that PE fit misfit is one factor that facilitates thwarts the satisfaction of these innate psychological needs, and therefore, leads to favorable unfavorable outcomes. PE fit also can shape the reasons for goal pursuit by directly impacting the level of autonomous-controlled motivation experienced and by indirectly shaping autonomous-controlled motivation through the process of internalization.

In the next section, we consider how PE fit may impact psychological need satisfaction and employee motivation. To do so, individuals seek environments in which they are able satisfy their needs while attempting to avoid environments that might limit their ability to satisfy these needs. Consistent with Kristof-Brown et al. Typically, PO fit is operationalized by looking at the degree to which employee values match those of the organization Kristoff, PO fit perhaps has received the most research attention out of the various PE fit components.

Meta-analyses reveal that PO fit relates to a variety of favorable employee outcomes including increased job satisfaction and organizational commitment Kristof-Brown et al. Several theoretical frameworks and associated literatures provide guidance for linking PO fit with the satisfaction of psychological needs. Fit within the ASA Model has been operationalized, for example, as value congruence, personality congruence, or need-supplies fit. The Theory of Work Adjustment TWA similarly argues that employees that fit better with their organization will better be able to satisfy their needs, thereby resulting in greater employee satisfaction and less turnover.

Fit is important in both models because fit allows employees to attain their goals, and presumably satisfy their needs. The community psychology literature provides another framework for expecting PO fit to relate to need satisfaction. Extending this to an organizational context, Masterson and Stamper argued that individuals with greater PO fit also are better able to satisfy their needs, and therefore, should report a greater sense of membership and community in the organization thereby resulting in more favorable outcomes.

Similar to other types of fit, PS fit may be operationalized in many different ways including attitudinal similarity, demographic similarity, or value congruence. PS fit relates to a Citation: Greguras, G. As with PO fit, PS fit often is operationalized based on value congruency between a supervisor and a subordinate. Several theories highlight the importance of the congruence fit between the supervisor and the subordinate. Drawing from the leadership literature, leader-member exchange LMX theory proposes that leaders develop unique exchange relationships with each follower. These relationships may be differentiated based on the degree to which they range from being based exclusively on the employment contract low LMX relationships to those which involve a reciprocal exchange of valued currencies e.

That is, Citation: Greguras, G. As yet another example of a related but relevant literature, consider the literature on abusive supervision e. Situations in which supervisors are abusive toward their employees would likely represent poor fit for the subordinate. Abusive supervision has been associated with a variety of negative subordinate outcomes including decreased well-being e.

Although we only present a few examples of theories addressing the supervisor- subordinate working relationship, these theories and others regarding supervisor-subordinate relationships or fit suggest that higher fit leads to favorable outcomes and greater well-being for the subordinate. That is, when PS fit is higher, supervisors and subordinates are likely to share Citation: Greguras, G.

One stream of SDT research that explicitly investigates how a supervisor treats a subordinate might influence need satisfaction is the literature examining supervisory autonomy support. Autonomous environments include those environments, for example, that allow employees flexibility, freedom, and participatory decision making. Several studies have investigated the degree to which supervisors support an autonomous or controlled work environment affects outcomes. Similarly, Guay et al. Numerous other studies have shown that subordinates with supervisors who are more autonomously supportive report a host of positive outcomes, for example, higher performance, increased well-being, increased intrinsic motivation, and more favorable work attitudes e.

The good news also is that research suggests that supervisors can be trained to be more autonomy supportive of their subordinates Deci et al. It is important to recall, however, that individuals likely prefer different ways or options for satisfying their needs for autonomy. In order for supervisors to facilitate autonomy need satisfaction, they should provide numerous opportunities for employees to satisfy this need. Some options include providing the subordinate with options e. It should also be noted that managers who provide various options and opportunities for employees to satisfy their needs for autonomy may be doing so through increasing fit.

That is, tailoring options to the desires of subordinates may increase PE fit, and in doing so, help employees to satisfy their needs. Meta-analytic results indicate that PG fit relates to a variety of positive employee behaviors and attitudes including employee job satisfaction, coworker satisfaction, overall performance, and contextual performance Kristof- Brown et al. As with other types of fit, PG fit has been operationalized in a variety of ways, including demographic similarity, attitudinal similarity, and value congruence.

The similarity-attraction hypothesis Byrne, posits that individuals are attracted to individuals who are similar to themselves, will communicate more frequently with similar others, and as a result, will develop more cohesive work relationships. Further, individuals may prefer to interact with similar others because such interactions serve to self-validate their own beliefs, attitudes, and preferences e.

The above discussion suggests that PG fit will facilitate the satisfaction of psychological needs. For example, the similarity-attraction hypothesis suggests that we like people who are similar to ourselves. Indeed, Kristof-Brown et al. DA fit refers to whether the individual has the abilities to meet the demands of the job. NS fit refers to whether the job supplies what the employee wants.

The majority of research has relied on employee perceptions to measure these types of PJ fit. Overall PJ fit positively relates to employee job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational identification, and strain Kristof-Brown et al. Moderator analyses in Kristof-Brown et al. Interestingly, NS fit also predicted job performance than did DA fit, suggesting that need fulfillment may be more important for employee performance and attitudes than DA ft.

As with the other types of PE fit discussed above, several theoretical frameworks exist that may be used to link PJ fit with need satisfaction. One of the earliest interests of organizational scientists was investigating how to best match the person to a job in order to increase proficiency.


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Recognizing that these earlier approaches often resulted in unfavorable employee outcomes e. Their model subsequently has been expanded by researchers to include additional motivational e. Other related work design approaches include, for example, job enrichment, job enlargement, and autonomous teams. Linking PJ fit to psychological need satisfaction seems intuitive. That is, if one has the ability to meet the demands of the job, we would expect that person to experience competence need satisfaction.

If the job provides one with what one needs, we expect that the job allows for the satisfaction of each of the three innate needs discussed above. However, what happens if a person is overqualified for a job? Will this person still experience need satisfaction and increased motivation, or will this person become bored, feel unchallenged, and therefore, not experience need satisfaction? As hypothesized by Feldman , underemployment lack of DA fit likely results in a variety of negative employee outcomes including decreased motivation, well-being, and job performance.

Specifically, these authors argue that objective overqualification may affect task performance through increased procedural and declarative knowledge but that perceived overqualification might simultaneously decrease motivation, thereby negating the benefits of the increased knowledge. We also noted the virtual lack of Citation: Greguras, G.

One exception is a study by Greguras and Diefendorff They hypothesized that various types of fit would be associated with different types of employee psychological need satisfaction. Further, they hypothesized that psychological need satisfaction would mediate the relations between PE fit and employee outcomes i. In addition to these direct effects, results indicated that PO, PG, and PJ fit significantly predicted affective commitment indirectly through their associated relations with the psychological needs discussed above.

PJ fit also indirectly affected job performance through employee competence need satisfaction. Further, both PO and PJ fit directly related to affective commitment. Below we discuss the relations between PE fit and employee motivation. Perhaps it goes without saying that need satisfaction is most likely to occur when individuals pursue tasks for intrinsically-motivating reasons — these individuals simply enjoy their tasks and find the tasks interesting, which make them feel autonomous and competent.

However, it may also go without saying that the experience of pure intrinsic motivation at work is probably Citation: Greguras, G.

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As such, the goal of many employees and their organizations may be to try to maximize the extent to which work is experienced as autonomous i. Thus, job characteristics and social contexts that can facilitate the internalization process will better enable employees to experience work as more autonomous i. As discussed above, autonomous motivation is achieved when individuals either pursue tasks for purely intrinsic reasons i.

Organizations and their members clearly specify the majority of work goals and tasks. As such, the process of internalization is likely to be easier and more complete when the reasons for pursuing the task naturally align with i. We argue that PE fit plays an integral role in shaping the level of autonomous motivation experienced by employees, with some aspects of fit operating directly by creating contexts that match existing values and already established intrinsic motivators, and other aspects of fit operating indirectly by facilitating the internalization process by helping to align external reasons for performing an activity with existing employee values.

As such, an environment Citation: Greguras, G. The notion of complementary fit is that the environment requires something that the person possesses, or vice versa. We contend that this type of fit is likely to facilitate autonomous motivation by providing an environmental context that naturally aligns with existing employee attributes e.

Perhaps the most obvious example of complementary fit is that of PJ fit, in which the person has abilities that are demanded of the job. This circumstance is likely to lead to high levels of effort and engagement on the part of employees because they are sufficiently challenged by the work, but not so much so that they become exhausted or overwhelmed. This circumstance is reminiscent of the antecedents of flow Csikszentmihalyi, which is characterized by absorption, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation Bakker, Similarly, Vancouver, More and Yoder showed that individuals are most likely to exert high effort when there is a good match between challenge and ability, with effort decreasing when there is a mismatch in either direction.

Thus, it seems that PJ fit may lead to need satisfaction because it engages the more autonomous forms of motivation on the part of employees. When PJ fit is high, employees are working on tasks that are challenging, absorbing, and enjoyable. However, there are likely some exceptions to the ability of PJ fit to lead to enhanced Citation: Greguras, G. Consider situations in which the personal attributes needed to perform the job are themselves maladaptive for well-being or need satisfaction.

For instance, bill collectors are often required to show negative emotions to delinquent customers to get them to comply with requests to pay their bills Sutton, In this situation, high PJ fit may be achieved when the person is high in negative affectivity, trait anger, hostility, or neuroticism. However, these traits may directly harm well-being Elfenbein, , despite high PJ fit occurring.

Similarly, Williams, Grow, Freedman, Ryan, and Deci showed that individuals high in a controlled causality orientation i. Similarly, Baard et al. Although these studies are suggestive about the potential for PJ fit to not always lead to better employee outcomes, no research directly examining the impact of fit on autonomy-controlled aspects of the person and environment has been conducted.

The most commonly discussed type of supplementary fit is that of value congruence, which can occur between the person and a variety of social targets i. We argue that value congruence forms of PE fit largely operate on autonomous motivation indirectly through the process of internalization Citation: Greguras, G.

In particular, fit dimensions which emphasize the congruence of values between the employee and others in the work environment likely lead to higher levels of autonomous motivation and need satisfaction through the process of individuals internalizing the reasons for performing the work. That is, value congruence e. As such, the more behavioral goals that are pursued on a day-to-day basis serve as the means by which the higher level goals i.

Further, the higher-level goals give meaning to and serve as the basis for pursuing the day-to-day activities. As such, the existence of high value congruence can infuse more meaning into behavioral goals pursued by employees. However, value congruence may come about as a result of socialization practices and the internalization process described by SDT.

This value congruence provides an interpretive frame for the establishment of mid- and lower-level goals pertaining to work that needs to be done on a shorter-term basis. With an important underlying value supporting these goals, the person is more likely to experience the work as being autonomously-derived, which should enhance the likelihood of Citation: Greguras, G.

The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory

This circumstance is in contrast to one in which employees experience low value congruence. Here, the person does not value the underlying reasons for performing work activities and the only organizational mechanisms that influence employee action involve the performance management system i. Thus, the work will be experienced as controlling i. So, for one to pursue a goal with identified motivation, they must be able to internalize the importance of the goal and make connections between their own beliefs and values.

Thus, it is likely that those who perceive a match between their own values and those espoused and exemplified in their environment and among social others in their environment will be better able to identify with and internalize the value of their goal pursuits within that environment. In contrast, it could be argued that whether value congruence relates to intrinsic motivation depends on what is actually valued. For example, if the employee and organization both value making money, this extrinsic value may not relate to autonomous motivation.


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We maintain, however, that value congruence which is typically measured generally will most Citation: Greguras, G. In addition to the theoretical link between the concept of value congruence and identified intrinsic motivation, there is overlap in recently tested models of the relationship between both fit perceptions and self-concordance model outcomes.

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Notably, many of the outcomes associated with PE fit overlap with those identified as outcomes of the self-concordance model. This parallel research suggests the relevance of goal self-concordance as a potential explanatory mechanism for the bivariate relationships observed in the PE fit literature. The connection between PE fit and the self-concordance model also was mentioned by Judge and Kristof-Brown as a promising avenue for future fit research. Although interpersonal dyads are the building blocks of social network analysis, the added value of the social network approach is that it goes beyond the dyad and considers indirect relationships through which people are connected Brass, These direct and indirect relationships are the channels through which resources flow, identities formed, and opportunities constrained or provided.

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The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory
The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory
The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory
The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory
The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory
The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory
The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory
The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory

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