Theory of the Avant-Garde. Cha, Theresa Hak Kyung. Debord, Guy. Eisenstein, Sergei M. Film Form: Essays in Film Theory. The Film Sense. Horkheimer, Max, and Theodor W. Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments, trans. John Cumming New York: Continuum, Jameson, Fredric. Kirby, Lynne. Kracauer, Siegfried. The Mass Ornament: Weimar Essays.
Thomas Y. Lovell, Terry. MacCabe, Colin. McGee, Patrick. Michelson, Annette, ed. Porton, Richard. Richter, Gerhard, ed. Rosen, Philip, ed. Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. Stam, Robert. Walsh, Martin. Zavarzadeh, Mas'ud. Zemon, Natalie Davis. Critical cultural film studies. Bennett, Tony, ed. Denning, Michael. Dixon, Wheeler Winston. Hall, Stuart ed. Dorfman, Ariel and Armand Mattelart. Dyer, Richard. Martin's, London: BFI, Heffernan, Nick. Hesmondhalgh, David. The Cultural Industries London: Sage, Jameson, Frederic. Landy, Marcia. Lipsitz, George. Sharrett, Christopher, ed.
Wells, Paul. Baker, Aaron. Bandhu, Pranjali. Churchill, Ward. Dorinson, Joseph and William Pencak, eds. Green, Ronald J. Kelley, Robin D. Jewell, Sue K. Social Policy New York: Routledge, Petty, Sheila, ed. Rogin, Michael. Snead, James. Watkins, S. Film, gender and sexuality, and class. Coward, Rosalind. Hollinger, Karen.
Jinhua, Dai. Jing Wang and Tani E. Barlow London: Verso, Kibbey, Ann. Krutnik, Frank. Kuhn, Annette. Women's Pictures: Feminism and Cinema, 2nd ed. New York and London: Verso, Meyers, Marian. Rabinovitz, Lauren. Rose, Jacqueline. Sexuality in the Field of Vision London: Verso, Rosenfelt, Deborah. Singer, Beverly R. Tinkom, Matthew. Watney, Simon. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Class politics and national cinemas. Cohen, Louis Harris. Gillett, Philip J. Ginsberg, Terri and Kirsten Moana Thompson, eds. Goulding, Daniel J.
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Wright, Erik Olin. Classes London: Verso, Political economy and sociology. Abraham, David. Chussudovsky, Michel. Dahrendorf, Ralf. Working Class London: Verso, Films from before and after the publication of the treatise are similar in style and many contemporary films breach various rules laid out in the treatise.
After graduating from Kim Il-sung University in , Kim Jong-il devoted himself to cultural, ideological and propaganda work at the Department of Organization and Guidance of the Central Committee of the party. After he had ordered the entire conference archive to be destroyed, Kim urged participants to be exclusively concerned with the teachings of Kim Il-sung and the party in creative work.
Kim had worked in the government arts administration for almost ten years by this time. From the preface of On the Art of the Cinema . In the treatise, Kim Jong-il seeks to apply the principles of the North Korean Juche ideology to questions of film, literature and art. The book deals comprehensively with aspects of cinema, including film and literary theory , acting, performance, score music, the screen,  camerawork, costumes, make-up, and props.
Both are considered justifications for the party's control over artistic creation. Compliance with these principles earns an artwork the title of "collective work". Films should be realistic, which is possible only when the filmmakers have lived with the popular masses,  much like the ideal of the revolutionaries of the Korean resistance. No "negative people" who would disagree with the party's policies can exist. The theory of literature as "humanics" MR : inganhak developed by Kim Jong-il establishes that literature exists within the human domain.
A key theme of humanics is the question of good and worthy life, allowing for propagandist and moralistic art.
Philosophically, it depends on the indeterministic view on free will in Juche. According to Kim, "humanics literature" gives emphasis to the development of truly independent individuals as called for by the Juche era. This brings about a transformation of the society as a whole. It has been called a "strange concept", a method of coercing artists to follow the party line, and a means of canceling out individual creativity;  Kim Jong-il equates a film with a living organism, noting that in this analogy the seed is its kernel.
The idea is that, if all artistic interpretation is done through a single ideological foundation, or "seed", the resulting cinema is whole. This makes all members of a creative team work for a single goal, in spite of differences in the personalities or focus of the individual members.
The director's task is to prevent anything "foreign" to the seed itself from entering cinema. Thus, the seed is the fundamental consciousness underlying artistic creativity. In more concrete terms, the seed is the basis of the propaganda message of the film: "a strong, convincing idea of what to tell". Its seed could be summarized as "whether or not Gap Ryong participates in the revolutionary movement, he dies". The seed theory became influential in the literary circles of North Korea and writers sought to backtrack the seeds in classics preceding Kim's treatise.
According to the "modeling theory", liberation struggles should be portrayed so as to combine national and class struggle. This is achieved through idolizing portrayal of the North Korean people  and by producing role-models. The "speed campaign" MR : sokto-jon  calls for rapid production of films. According to Kim Jong-il, by producing films as fast as possible, the overall revolutionary process is expedited.
For instance, the eight-part film series Unsung Heroes — was produced by following the speed campaign principle. Each film took just 45 days to produce. While official biographies of Kim Jong-il describe On the Art of the Cinema as comprehensive, original and "supported by impeccable logic",  Whitney Mallett calls it boring and repetitive.
The work is considered the most authoritative guide on filmmaking in North Korea. Films from before and after the publication of the treatise are remarkably similar, suggesting that it had little impact on North Korean film industry in practice. Rather than the theoretical breakthrough it is taught as, it is an account of Kim Jong-il's personal experiences in the film industry and an attempt to thwart the "sloppiness and thoughtlessness" he had encountered.
Kim himself considered his treatise a failure. North Korean cinema could not compete with the quality of foreign, and in particular South Korean , films. The couple used the opportunity to escape, and ended up in America.
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Politically, the treatise was a success. At the time of writing On the Art of the Cinema , Kim's father Kim Il-sung was systematically rallying support for the younger Kim to prepare for his succession. On the Art of the Cinema is mandatory reading for North Korean students of literature. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Motion pictures in propaganda, Government policy, Korea North . The cinema occupies an important place in the overall development of art and literature.
As such it is a powerful ideological weapon for the revolution and construction. Therefore, concentrating efforts on the cinema, making breakthroughs and following up success in all areas of art and literature is the basic principle that we must adhere to in revolutionizing art and literature. North Korea portal Film portal Books portal Socialism portal. Retrieved April 9, May 15, Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved April 1, Great Leader, Kim Jong Il.
Tokyo: Sorinsha. Hazlitt Magazine. Penguin Random House Canada. Retrieved July 11, Retrieved May 21, Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. International Journal of Korean Unification Studies. Korea Institute for National Unification. Korean Studies. Retrieved April 4, With conflict in art being 'the reflection of the class struggle in life,' class conflict must thus predominantly be described as a past and external phenomenon, apropos of the socialist realist theory of conflictlessness.
Neglecting the mandatory depiction would be perceived as if the authors were raising an implicit critique of the North Korean state. University of Michigan Press. Retrieved April 7,
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